A trend analysis of the relative value of blue dye and isotope localization in 2,000 consecutive cases of sentinel node biopsy for breast cancer

J Am Coll Surg. 2001 Nov;193(5):473-8. doi: 10.1016/s1072-7515(01)01038-9.


Background: Among the advocates of blue dye, isotope, or combined dye-isotope mapping of the sentinel lymph node (SLN) for breast cancer, there is no universal consensus as to which technique is optimal and whether the relative value of each method changes with increasing experience. The objective of this study was to examine the relative contributions of blue dye and radioisotope to successful identification of the SLN as the SLN-mapping technique evolved over our first 2,000 consecutive cases.

Study design: Using the first 2,000 consecutive SLN biopsy procedures for breast cancer, performed by eight surgeons (none previously experienced in SLN techniques) at one institution, using a combined technique of blue dye and isotope mapping, we report the institutional learning curve and the relative contributions of dye and isotope to identifying both the SLN and the positive SLN, by increments of 500 cases.

Results: Comparing the first 500 with the most recent 500 cases, success in identifying the SLN by blue dye did not improve with experience, although success in isotope localization steadily increased, from 86% to 94% (p < 0.00005). With the increasing success of isotope mapping, the marginal benefit of blue dye (the proportion of cases in which the SLN was identified by blue dye alone) steadily declined, from 9% to 3% (p = 0.0001). Parallel to this trend, the proportion of positive SLNs identified by blue dye did not change with experience (89% to 90%), but isotope success steadily increased, from 88% to 98% (p = 0.0015). The proportion of positive SLNs identified by blue dye alone declined from 12% to 2% (p = 0.0015).

Conclusions: Using a combined technique of blue dye and radioisotope mapping, and with refinement of the radioisotope technique, we report 97% success identifying the SLN. Although we continue to recommend the use of both methods in SLN mapping for breast cancer, we observe with experience a declining marginal benefit for blue dye.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Breast Neoplasms / pathology*
  • Breast Neoplasms / surgery
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Injections, Intralesional
  • Lymph Node Excision
  • Lymph Nodes / diagnostic imaging
  • Lymph Nodes / pathology
  • Neoplasm Staging
  • Predictive Value of Tests
  • Radionuclide Imaging
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Rosaniline Dyes*
  • Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy / methods*
  • Technetium Tc 99m Sulfur Colloid*


  • Rosaniline Dyes
  • iso-sulfan blue
  • Technetium Tc 99m Sulfur Colloid