Auxins are a class of phytohormones implicated in virtually every aspect of plant growth and development. Many early plant responses to auxin are apparently mediated by members of a family of Aux/IAA proteins that dimerize with and inhibit members of the auxin response factor (ARF) family of transcription factors. Aux/IAA proteins are unstable, and their degradation is triggered by a ubiquitin-protein ligase that is regulated by modification with a ubiquitin-related protein. Recent genetic and biochemical evidence indicates that auxin accelerates the degradation of the already short-lived Aux/IAA proteins to derepress transcription by ARF proteins. Several pieces of the auxin-signaling puzzle remain to be assembled, including the proteins that initially bind auxin, the proteins that convey this signal to the protein degradation machinery, and the targets of the transcriptional derepression.