The literature on combined surgery in the treatment of patients with cataract and primary open-angle glaucoma was comprehensively studied, and all aspects and variations of the combined procedure were assessed. Phacoemulsification has improved the success rate and reduced the complication rate previously associated with extracapsular cataract extraction combined with trabeculectomy. A mean reduction in intraocular pressure (IOP) of 5 to 8 mm Hg can be achieved. One- and 2-site techniques appear to be similarly effective. Phacotrabeculectomy augmented with mitomycin-C achieves a lower IOP than phacotrabeculectomy alone but has a higher complication rate. The use of 5-fluorouracil is not as effective as mitomycin-C and has a variable influence on the results. The development of new techniques that combine nonpenetrating glaucoma surgery with phacoemulsification offers interesting surgical alternatives, but no long-term results have been reported.