Over recent years the clinical importance of mucormycosis has significantly increased. Most frequently mucormycosis occurs in neutropenic patients with haematological diseases. It is caused by fungi of the order Mucorales. The clinical patterns of the disease produced by different genera or species of Mucorales are virtually identical. Rhizopus, Absidia, Rhizomucor and Mucor are the organisms most commonly isolated from patients who suffer from mucormycosis. Diagnosis of mucormycosis is difficult as it is based on culture methods or microscopy of clinical specimens. The diagnosis is often only made after a delay or even post-mortem. Therapy includes surgical intervention if possible and is based on systemic amphotericin B (conventional or liposomal).