Earmarks as evidence: a critical review

J Forensic Sci. 2001 Nov;46(6):1275-84.


The use of earmarks as evidence in criminal trials appears to be expanding, but there is something of a dearth of peer-reviewed scientific publications to support the pursuit. This paper is a critical review of the current literature in which we emphasize the weaknesses of the present state of knowledge. Some research directions are proposed to gather statistical knowledge of the within-source and between-source variability of earmarks and earprints. Its ultimate goal is to be able to assess likelihood ratios in relation to this type of evidence.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Ear / anatomy & histology*
  • Female
  • Forensic Medicine / methods*
  • Forensic Medicine / standards
  • Humans
  • Male