Purpose: To evaluate genetics tests available for clinical, research, and public health purposes in terms of their public health impact as measured by the number of people who could potentially be tested.
Methods: Genetic tests for the 751 inherited diseases or conditions listed in the GeneTests database as of November 2000, were classified on the basis of their use for population-based testing and the prevalence of the disease or condition being tested. The GeneTests database divides the tests into two groups: those offered for clinical use and those available for research only.
Results: Of the 423 clinical tests, 51 had potentially greater impact on public health because of their use in statewide newborn screening programs, other population screening programs, or testing for common diseases with a prevalence over 1 in 2,000 people. Among the 328 tests performed for research purposes only, 18 met the criteria for potentially greater public health impact.
Conclusions: Our classification scheme indicated that fewer than 10% of the genetic tests listed in the GeneTests database at the end of 2000 are highly relevant to public health. The majority of genetic tests are used in diagnosis and/or genetic counseling for rare, single-gene disorders in a limited number of people. However, as more tests are being considered for newborn screening, and associations between genes and common diseases are being discovered, the impact of genetic testing on public health is likely to increase.