Akt/mTOR pathway is a crucial regulator of skeletal muscle hypertrophy and can prevent muscle atrophy in vivo

Nat Cell Biol. 2001 Nov;3(11):1014-9. doi: 10.1038/ncb1101-1014.

Abstract

Skeletal muscles adapt to changes in their workload by regulating fibre size by unknown mechanisms. The roles of two signalling pathways implicated in muscle hypertrophy on the basis of findings in vitro, Akt/mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) and calcineurin/NFAT (nuclear factor of activated T cells), were investigated in several models of skeletal muscle hypertrophy and atrophy in vivo. The Akt/mTOR pathway was upregulated during hypertrophy and downregulated during muscle atrophy. Furthermore, rapamycin, a selective blocker of mTOR, blocked hypertrophy in all models tested, without causing atrophy in control muscles. In contrast, the calcineurin pathway was not activated during hypertrophy in vivo, and inhibitors of calcineurin, cyclosporin A and FK506 did not blunt hypertrophy. Finally, genetic activation of the Akt/mTOR pathway was sufficient to cause hypertrophy and prevent atrophy in vivo, whereas genetic blockade of this pathway blocked hypertrophy in vivo. We conclude that the activation of the Akt/mTOR pathway and its downstream targets, p70S6K and PHAS-1/4E-BP1, is requisitely involved in regulating skeletal muscle fibre size, and that activation of the Akt/mTOR pathway can oppose muscle atrophy induced by disuse.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Calcineurin / metabolism
  • Cardiomegaly / metabolism
  • Cyclosporine / pharmacology
  • Enzyme Inhibitors / pharmacology
  • Female
  • Muscle, Skeletal / metabolism*
  • Muscular Atrophy / metabolism*
  • Protein Kinases / metabolism*
  • Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases*
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins / metabolism*
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt
  • Rats
  • Rats, Sprague-Dawley
  • Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases / metabolism
  • Signal Transduction*
  • TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases

Substances

  • Enzyme Inhibitors
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins
  • Cyclosporine
  • Protein Kinases
  • TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases
  • mTOR protein, rat
  • Akt1 protein, rat
  • Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt
  • Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases
  • Calcineurin