Sibling-based association study of the PPARgamma2 Pro12Ala polymorphism and metabolic variables in Chinese and Japanese hypertension families: a SAPPHIRe study. Stanford Asian-Pacific Program in Hypertension and Insulin Resistance

J Mol Med (Berl). 2001 Nov;79(11):656-64. doi: 10.1007/s001090100255.


The peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) gamma2 is a transcription factor that has been shown to be involved in adipocyte differentiation, adipogenesis, and insulin sensitivity. To address the role of PPARgamma2 in glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity, among many other objectives, we conducted a sibling-controlled association study in a multicenter program - the Stanford Asian-Pacific Program in Hypertension and Insulin Resistance (SAPPHIRe). Approximately 2525 subjects in 734 Chinese and Japanese families have been recruited from six field centers for SAPPHIRe. In total, 1702 subjects including parents and siblings from 449 families have been genotyped for PPARgamma2, of which 328 families were Chinese and 121 Japanese. Only 88 subjects of the 1525 siblings screened for the P12A polymorphism were found to be carriers of the A variant, the most common variant of the PPARgamma2 gene. A variant frequencies of the siblings were 4.27% in Chinese and 2.72% in Japanese. A sibling-controlled association study was performed through genetically discordant sibships (i.e., P/P genotype vs. P/A + A/A genotypes). Specifically, we examined whether there were differences in metabolic variables between the discordant siblings within families. In total, 88 subjects carrying either 1 or 2 A alleles had at least one sibling who was discordant for the P12A polymorphism, yielding a total of 180 individuals from 47 families for analyses, among which 92 siblings were homozygous for wild-type P allele. Siblings with the A variant tended to have lower levels of fasting plasma glucose (OG-10), and lower glucose levels at 60 min following oral glucose loading after adjusting for age, gender, and body mass index. Using a mixed model treating family as a random effect, we found that P12A polymorphism of the PPARgamma2 gene contributes significantly to the variance in fasting plasma glucose, glucose level at 60 min, and insulin-resistance homeostasis model assessment. Our results suggest that within families siblings with the A variant in the PPARgamma2 gene may be more likely to have better glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity independent of obesity in Chinese and Japanese populations.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Age Factors
  • Aged
  • Alanine / chemistry*
  • Alleles
  • Blood Glucose / metabolism
  • China
  • Family Health
  • Female
  • Genotype
  • Glucose Tolerance Test
  • Homozygote
  • Humans
  • Hypertension / genetics*
  • Hypertension / metabolism*
  • Insulin Resistance / genetics*
  • Japan
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Obesity / metabolism
  • Phenotype
  • Polymorphism, Genetic*
  • Proline / chemistry*
  • Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear / genetics*
  • Regression Analysis
  • Sex Factors
  • Time Factors
  • Transcription Factors / genetics*


  • Blood Glucose
  • Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear
  • Transcription Factors
  • Proline
  • Alanine