Study objectives: To determine the effect of a high-fat meal, orange juice, and antacids on absorption of a single oral dose of cycloserine and to estimate its population pharmacokinetic parameters.
Design: Randomized, four-period, crossover study.
Setting: Clinical research center.
Patients: Twelve healthy volunteers.
Interventions: Subjects received single doses of cycloserine 500 mg after a 12-hour fast (reference), with a high-fat meal, with orange juice, and with antacids. They also received clofazimine 200 mg, ethionamide 500 mg, and p-aminosalicylic acid granules 6000 mg.
Measurements and main results: Plasma samples were collected for 48 hours and assayed by validated high-performance capillary electrophoresis assay. Concentration-time data were analyzed with noncompartmental, one-compartment, and population methods. The maximum concentration (Cmax) of cycloserine was decreased (p=0.02) by the high-fat meal. No other statistically significant differences were observed for Cmax and area under the curve from time zero to infinity across the four treatments. The high-fat meal significantly (p<0.0001) delayed time to maximum concentration by 4.7 times compared with that of the reference (1.1 hr).
Conclusion: The pharmacokinetics of cycloserine were minimally affected by orange juice and antacids, whereas the high-fat meal delayed absorption. Administering cycloserine without a high-fat meal avoids potential alterations in the pattern of absorption.