Proteomic technologies, including high resolution two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE), antibody/protein arrays, and advances in mass spectrometry (MS), are providing the tools needed to discover and identify disease associated biomarkers. Although application of these technologies to search for potential diagnostic/prognostic biomarkers associated with prostate and bladder cancer have been somewhat limited to date, proteins either overexpressed or underexpressed have been detected in both these urological cancers. Recent advances in mass spectrometry, especially platforms that permit rapid "fingerprint" profiling of multiple biomarkers, and tandem mass spectrometers for protein identification, will most assuredly enhance the discovery, identification, and characterization of potential cancer associated biomarkers. Furthermore, application of laser capture microdissection microscopes has provided a rapid and reproducible approach to procure pure populations of cells. This technology coupled to 2-DE and MS has significantly aided the elucidation of the differential expression profiles between disease, benign and normal prostate and bladder cell populations. Finally, development and application of learning algorithms and bioinformatics to the data generated by these proteomic technologies will be essential in determining the clinical potential of a protein biomarker. The purpose of this review is to provide the reader with an overview of the application of these technologies in the search and identification of potential diagnostic/prognostic biomarkers for prostate and bladder cancers.