Salicylic acid (SA) plays a key role in activating defenses and cell death during plant-pathogen interactions. In response to some pathogens, SA also limits the extent of cell death, indicating that it acts positively or negatively depending on the host-pathogen interaction. In addition, we previously showed that SA affects cell growth in the Arabidopsis defense-related mutants accelerated cell death 6-1 (acd6-1) and aberrant growth and death 2 (agd2). Using acd6-1, agd2 and two other defense-related mutants, lesion simulating disease 6 (lsd6), suppressor of SA-insensitivity (ssi1), we show here in detail that SA regulates cell growth by specifically affecting cell enlargement, endoreduplication and/or cell division. We find that SA can act either positively or negatively to regulate cell growth depending on the context in which signaling occurs. Additionally, Nonexpressor of PR 1 (NPR1), a key SA signaling protein important for regulating defenses and cell death, also acts to promote cell division and/or suppress endoreduplication during leaf development. We propose that SA interacts with multiple receptors or signaling pathways to control cellular alterations during normal development, pathogen attack and/or stress situations. We suggest that SA and NPR1 play broader roles in cell fate control than has previously been understood.