Background: Hydrogenation of vegetable oils affects blood lipid and lipoprotein concentrations. However, little is known about the effects of hydrogenation on other components, such as vitamin K. Low phylloquinone (vitamin K1) intake is a potential risk factor for bone fracture, although the mechanisms of this are unknown.
Objective: The objective was to compare the biological effects of phylloquinone and its hydrogenated form, dihydrophylloquinone, on vitamin K status and markers of bone formation and resorption.
Design: In a randomized crossover study in a metabolic unit, 15 young adults were fed a phylloquinone-restricted diet (10 microg/d) for 15 d followed by 10 d of repletion (200 microg/d) with either phylloquinone or dihydrophylloquinone.
Results: There was an increase and subsequent decrease in measures of bone formation (P = 0.002) and resorption (P = 0.08) after dietary phylloquinone restriction and repletion, respectively. In comparison with phylloquinone, dihydrophylloquinone was less absorbed and had no measurable biological effect on measures of bone formation and resorption.
Conclusion: Hydrogenation of plant oils appears to decrease the absorption and biological effect of vitamin K in bone.