Effects of a hydrogenated form of vitamin K on bone formation and resorption

Am J Clin Nutr. 2001 Dec;74(6):783-90. doi: 10.1093/ajcn/74.6.783.


Background: Hydrogenation of vegetable oils affects blood lipid and lipoprotein concentrations. However, little is known about the effects of hydrogenation on other components, such as vitamin K. Low phylloquinone (vitamin K1) intake is a potential risk factor for bone fracture, although the mechanisms of this are unknown.

Objective: The objective was to compare the biological effects of phylloquinone and its hydrogenated form, dihydrophylloquinone, on vitamin K status and markers of bone formation and resorption.

Design: In a randomized crossover study in a metabolic unit, 15 young adults were fed a phylloquinone-restricted diet (10 microg/d) for 15 d followed by 10 d of repletion (200 microg/d) with either phylloquinone or dihydrophylloquinone.

Results: There was an increase and subsequent decrease in measures of bone formation (P = 0.002) and resorption (P = 0.08) after dietary phylloquinone restriction and repletion, respectively. In comparison with phylloquinone, dihydrophylloquinone was less absorbed and had no measurable biological effect on measures of bone formation and resorption.

Conclusion: Hydrogenation of plant oils appears to decrease the absorption and biological effect of vitamin K in bone.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Bone Development / drug effects
  • Bone Resorption / etiology
  • Bone Resorption / prevention & control
  • Bone and Bones / drug effects
  • Bone and Bones / metabolism*
  • Cross-Over Studies
  • Female
  • Fractures, Bone / etiology*
  • Humans
  • Hydrogenation
  • Male
  • Plant Oils / chemistry*
  • Risk Factors
  • Time Factors
  • Vitamin K 1 / administration & dosage
  • Vitamin K 1 / analogs & derivatives*
  • Vitamin K 1 / metabolism
  • Vitamin K 1 / pharmacology*


  • Plant Oils
  • dihydrophylloquinone
  • Vitamin K 1