The authors describe the policy and administrative-practice implications of implementing evidence-based services, particularly in public-sector settings. They review the observations of the contributors to the evidence-based practices series published throughout 2001 in Psychiatric Services. Quality and accountability have become the watchwords of health and mental health services; evidence-based practices are a means to both ends. If the objective of accountable, high-quality services is to be achieved by implementing evidence-based practices, the right incentives must be put in place, and systemic barriers must be overcome. The authors use the framework from the U.S. Surgeon General's 1999 report on mental health to describe eight courses of action for addressing the gap between science and practice: continue to build the science base; overcome stigma; improve public awareness of effective treatments; ensure the supply of mental health services and providers; ensure delivery of state-of-the-art treatments; tailor treatment to age, sex, race, and culture; facilitate entry into treatment; and reduce financial barriers to treatment.