The ability of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to tolerate ionizing radiation damage requires many DNA-repair and checkpoint genes, most having human orthologs. A genome-wide screen of diploid mutants homozygous with respect to deletions of 3,670 nonessential genes revealed 107 new loci that influence gamma-ray sensitivity. Many affect replication, recombination and checkpoint functions. Nearly 90% were sensitive to other agents, and most new genes could be assigned to the following functional groups: chromatin remodeling, chromosome segregation, nuclear pore formation, transcription, Golgi/vacuolar activities, ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation, cytokinesis, mitochondrial activity and cell wall maintenance. Over 50% share homology with human genes, including 17 implicated in cancer, indicating that a large set of newly identified human genes may have related roles in the toleration of radiation damage.