In vivo imaging of cells tagged with light-emitting probes, such as firefly luciferase or fluorescent proteins, is a powerful technology that enables a wide range of biological studies in small research animals. Reporters with emission in the red to infrared (>600 nm) are preferred due to the low absorption in tissue at these wavelengths. Modeling of photon diffusion through tissue indicates that bioluminescent cell counts as low as a few hundred can be detected subcutaneously, while approximately 10(6) cells are required to detect signals at approximately 2 cm depth in tissue. Signal-to-noise estimates show that cooled back-thinned integrating charge coupled devices (CCDs) are preferred to image-intensified CCDs for this application, mainly due to their high quantum efficiency (approximately 85%) at wavelengths >600 nm where tissue absorption is low. Instrumentation for in vivo imaging developed at Xenogen is described and several examples of images of mice with bioluminescent cells are presented.