The interaction between the TNF receptor family member CD27 and its ligand CD70 provides a costimulatory signal for T cell expansion. Normally, tightly regulated expression of CD70 ensures the transient availability of this costimulatory signal. Mice expressing constitutive CD70 on B cells had higher peripheral T cell numbers that showed increased differentiation toward effector-type T cells. B cell numbers in CD70 transgenic (TG) mice progressively decreased in primary and secondary lymphoid organs. This B cell depletion was caused by CD27-induced production of IFNgamma in T cells. We conclude that apart from its role in controlling the size of the activated T cell pool, CD27 ligation contributes to immunity by facilitating effector T cell differentiation.