Objective: To determine whether gestational diabetes (GDM) complicated with hydramnios is associated with higher rates of perinatal morbidity and mortality than those with normal amniotic fluid (AFI).
Study design: A case control study of 368 pregnant women with GDM was conducted between January 1995 and December 1996. The study group consisted of 184 women with hydramnios (AFI>25 cm) that were matched for maternal age, parity, and gestational age to 184 women with gestational diabetes and normal AFI. A Student's t-test, McNemar test and logistic regression test were used to compare the two groups.
Results: Both groups were under strict metabolic control; mean glucose levels of 5.2+/-2.4 mmol/l in the study group and 5.5+/-2.4 mmol/l in the controls (P>0.05). There were no significant differences between groups in the rates of severe preeclampsia, premature rupture of membranes (PROM), cesarean section rate, intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), antepartum fetal death, fetal distress, prolapse of umbilical cord and placenta abruption. Even though the prevalence of large for gestational age (LGA) and birth weight were significantly higher in the study group (31 versus 19% and 3441+/-477 versus 3232+/-554 g, respectively), the prevalence of neonatal trauma was the same in both groups (2.6%). There was no significant difference in the Apgar scores (1 and 5 min), newborn hypoglycemia, metabolic acidosis and hyperbilirubinemia.
Conclusions: Hydramnios in women with GDM was not associated with increased risk of perinatal morbidity and mortality.