Environmental and hormonal regulators of diapause have been reasonably well defined, but our understanding of the molecular regulation of diapause remains in its infancy. Though many genes are shut down during diapause, others are specifically expressed at this time. Classes of diapause-upregulated genes can be distinguished based on their expression patterns: Some are upregulated throughout diapause, and others are expressed only in early diapause, late diapause, or intermittently throughout diapause. The termination of diapause is accompanied by a rapid decline in expression of the diapause-upregulated genes and, conversely, an elevation in expression of many genes that were downregulated during diapause. A comparison of insect diapause with other forms of dormancy in plants and animals suggests that upregulation of a subset of heat shock protein genes may be one feature common to different types of dormancies.