Closed-chain rehabilitation for upper and lower extremities

J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 2001 Nov-Dec;9(6):412-21. doi: 10.5435/00124635-200111000-00006.


Closed-chain exercise protocols are used extensively in rehabilitation of knee injuries and are increasingly used in rehabilitation of shoulder injuries. They are felt to be preferable to other exercise programs in that they simulate normal physiologic and biomechanical functions, create little shear stress across injured or healing joints, and reproduce proprioceptive stimuli. Because of these advantages, they may be used early in rehabilitation and have been integral parts of "accelerated" rehabilitation programs. The authors review the important components of a closed-chain rehabilitation program and provide examples of specific exercises that are used for rehabilitation of knee and shoulder injuries.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Arm
  • Exercise Therapy / methods*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Joint Diseases / rehabilitation*
  • Leg
  • Male
  • Musculoskeletal Diseases / rehabilitation*
  • Prognosis
  • Rehabilitation / methods
  • Sensitivity and Specificity
  • Treatment Outcome