Mainstream smoke from blended research cigarettes with (test) and without (control) the addition of ingredients to the tobacco was assayed for inhalation toxicity. In total, 333 ingredients commonly used in cigarette manufacturing were assigned to three different groups. Each group of ingredients was introduced at a low and a high level to the test cigarettes. Male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed nose-only either to fresh air (sham) or diluted mainstream smoke from the test, the control, or the Reference Cigarette 1R4F at a concentration of 150 microg total particulate matter/l for 90 days, 6h/day, 7 days/week. A 42-day post-inhalation period was included to evaluate reversibility of possible findings. There were no remarkable differences in in-life observations or gross pathology between test and control groups. An increase in activity of liver enzymes, known to be due to the high smoke dose, revealed no toxicologically relevant differences between the test and control groups. No toxicological differences were seen between the test and control groups for smoke-related hematological changes, such as a decrease in total leukocyte count. The basic smoke-related histopathological effects, which were more pronounced in the upper respiratory tract than in the lower respiratory tract, were hyperplasia and squamous metaplasia of the respiratory epithelium, squamous metaplasia and atrophy of the olfactory epithelium, and accumulation of pigmented alveolar macrophages. There were no relevant qualitative or quantitative differences in findings in the respiratory tract of the rats exposed to the smoke from the control and test cigarettes. The data indicate that the addition of these 333 commonly used ingredients, added to cigarettes in three groups, did not increase the inhalation toxicity of the smoke, even at the exaggerated levels used.