The actin cytoskeleton is a complex and dynamic structure that participates in diverse cellular events which contribute to plant morphogenesis and development. Plant actins and associated actin-binding proteins are encoded by large, differentially expressed gene families. The complexity of these gene families is thought to have been conserved to maintain a pool of protein isovariants with unique properties, thus providing a mechanistic basis for the observed diversity of plant actin functions. Plants contain actin-binding proteins which regulate the supramolecular organization and function of the actin cytoskeleton, including monomer-binding proteins (profilin), severing and dynamizing proteins (ADF/cofilin), and side-binding proteins (fimbrin, 135-ABP/villin, 115-ABP). Although significant progress in documenting the biochemical activities of many of these classes of proteins has been made, the precise roles of actin-binding proteins in vivo awaits clarification by detailed mutational analyses.