Primary and secondary plasmodesmata: structure, origin, and functioning

Protoplasma. 2001;216(1-2):1-30. doi: 10.1007/BF02680127.


In the multicellular organisms of higher plants, plasmodesmata provide pathways for intimate symplasmic communication between neighboring cells. The arguments summarized in the present review demonstrate that plasmodesmata are diverse and highly dynamic structures. Differences in the plasmodesmal origin and modifications of the plasmodesmal structure and functioning at the various cell interfaces are the basic means which give rise to a complicated and flexibile symplasmic network. This complex communication system is discussed to serve a significant role in the coordinated development and in the concerted physiological functioning of the cells within the plant tissues, organs, and organisms.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Cell Communication / physiology*
  • Cell Wall / chemistry
  • Cell Wall / metabolism
  • Cell Wall / ultrastructure
  • Intercellular Junctions / chemistry
  • Intercellular Junctions / physiology*
  • Intercellular Junctions / ultrastructure*
  • Microscopy, Electron
  • Models, Biological
  • Plant Development
  • Plant Leaves / growth & development
  • Plant Leaves / metabolism
  • Plant Physiological Phenomena
  • Plants / genetics
  • Plants / ultrastructure*