Immunohistochemical detection of inhibin-alpha, -betaA and -betaB chains and 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD) was carried out on primary testicular tumors from 15 dogs and normal testes from three adult dogs. Histopathologically, the tumors were composed of three types: Leydig cell tumors in five dogs, Sertoli cell tumors in five dogs, and seminoma in five dogs. In normal testes, immunostaining against inhibin-alpha, -betaA, and -betaB chains and 3beta-HSD revealed positive reactivity in the cytoplasm of Leydig cells. In testicular tumors, immunoreactive cells against inhibin-alpha, -betaA, and -betaB chains and 3beta-HSD were localized in all Leydig cell tumors but not in any Sertoli cell tumors or seminomas. The results of radioimmunoassay for plasma inhibin in dogs with Leydig cell tumors showed higher concentrations than those in dogs with Sertoli cell tumors and seminomas and those in normal dogs. The concentration of inhibin in the plasma was markedly decreased by the surgical removal of the Leydig cell tumor in one dog. Our findings suggest that inhibin is synthesized by normal and neoplastic Leydig cells in the canine testis, and the secreted inhibin may be inhibin A and inhibin B.