Roles of nodal-lefty regulatory loops in embryonic patterning of vertebrates

Genes Cells. 2001 Nov;6(11):923-30. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2443.2001.00481.x.


Nodal is a signalling molecule that belongs to the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of proteins, and Lefty proteins are antagonists of Nodal signalling. The nodal and lefty genes form positive and negative regulatory loops that resemble the reaction-diffusion system. As a pair, these genes control various events of vertebrate embryonic patterning, including left-right specification and mesoderm formation. In this review, we will focus on recent studies that have addressed the roles of nodal and lefty in mouse development.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Body Patterning / physiology*
  • Gene Expression Regulation / genetics
  • Left-Right Determination Factors
  • Mice
  • Nodal Protein
  • Signal Transduction
  • Transcription, Genetic / genetics
  • Transforming Growth Factor beta / genetics*
  • Vertebrates / embryology*


  • Left-Right Determination Factors
  • Nodal Protein
  • Nodal protein, mouse
  • Transforming Growth Factor beta