NR-binding SET-domain-containing protein (NSD1) is a mouse nuclear protein containing su(var)3-9, enhancer-of-zeste, trithorax (SET), proline-tryptophan-tryptophan-proline (PWWP) and plant homeodomain protein (PHD)-finger domains (Huang et al., EMBO J. 17 (1998) 3398). This protein also has two other distinct nuclear receptor (NR)-interaction domains, called NID(-L) and NID(+L), and acts as both a NR corepressor and a coactivator by interacting directly with the ligand-binding domain of several NRs. Thus, NSD1 is a bifunctional, transcriptional, intermediary factor. We isolated the human homologue (NSD1) of the mouse NSD1 gene (Nsd1), mapped it to human chromosome 5q35, and characterized its genomic structure. NSD1 consists of at least 23 exons. Its cDNA is 8552 bp long, has an 8088 bp open reading frame, contains at least six functional domains (SET, PWWP-I, PWWP-II, PHD-I, PHD-II, and PHD-III) and ten putative nuclear localization signals, and encodes 2696 amino acids. NSD1 shows 86% identity with the mouse Nsd1 at the nucleotide level, and 83% at the amino acid level. NSD1 is expressed in the fetal/adult brain, kidney, skeletal muscle, spleen, and the thymus, and faintly in the lung. Two different transcripts (9.0 and 10.0 kb) were consistently observed in various fetal and adult tissues examined. These findings favor the character of NSD1 as a nucleus-localized, basic transcriptional factor and also a bifunctional transcriptional regulator, such as that of the mouse Nsd1. It remains to be investigated whether mutations of NSD1 lead to a specific phenotype in man.