Despite the growing awareness of intraductal papillary-mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) of the pancreas among clinicians, the molecular features of IPMNs have not been well characterized. Previous reports suggest that inactivation of the STK11/LKB1, a tumor-suppressor gene responsible for Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS), plays a role in the pathogenesis of gastrointestinal hamartomas as well as several cancers, including pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Using polymerase chain reaction amplification of five microsatellite markers from the 19p13.3 region harboring the STK11/LKB1 gene, we analyzed DNA from 22 IPMNs for loss of heterozygosity (LOH). LOH at 19p13.3 was identified in 2 of 2 (100%) IPMNs from patients with PJS and 5 of 20 (25%) from patients lacking features of PJS (7 of 22, 32% overall). Sequencing analysis of the STK11/LKB1 gene in these IPMNs with LOH revealed a germline mutation in one IPMN that arose in a patient with PJS and a somatic mutation in 1 of the 20 sporadic IPMNs. None of the 22 IPMNs showed hypermethylation of the STK11/LKB1 gene. These results suggest that the STK11/LKB1 gene is involved in the pathogenesis of some IPMNs.