Current polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods for the molecular diagnosis of B- and T-cell lymphomas by determination of clonality of immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) and T-cell receptor-gamma rearrangements and by detection of the chromosomal translocations t(14;18) and t(11;14), require several laborious and costly PCR assays for each of these diagnostic tests. We have developed a multiplex PCR assay for the simultaneous determination of B- and T-cell clonality and the detection of the chromosomal translocations t(14;18) and t(11;14) in a single reaction, using four-color fluorescence and automated high-resolution fragment analysis. The 26 primers combined in the multiplex PCR correspond to the sequences of >90% of the 69 variables and 6 join IgH genes and 100% of the T-cell receptor-gamma variables and join genes that could participate in the respective rearrangements. In addition, they detect the major and the minor breakpoint regions of the t(14;18) and the major breakpoint region of the t(11;14), and amplify the beta-globin gene as an internal control. The specificity of the multiplex PCR was confirmed by analysis of 39 T-cell lymphomas and 58 B-cell lymphomas, including 11 mantle cell lymphomas bearing the t(11;14) and 25 follicular lymphomas bearing the t(14;18), with known rearrangements and/or translocations. Fifteen samples of reactive lymphadenitis remained negative.