Evaluation of PCR primers to screen for Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates and beta-lactam resistance, and to detect common macrolide resistance determinants

J Antimicrob Chemother. 2001 Dec;48(6):915-8. doi: 10.1093/jac/48.6.915.


Pneumococcal isolates (n = 148) from various countries (mostly from the USA) were tested by a primer set for PCR. Thirty-eight (86.4%) of the 44 penicillin G-susceptible isolates (MIC < or = 0.06 mg/L) had unaltered pbps, while six isolates (13.6%) had either one or two alterations in pbps. Of 47 penicillin G-resistant strains (MIC > or = 2 mg/L), 41 isolates (87.2%) had all three pbps altered, six isolates (12.8%) had altered pbp1a + 2x. Various combinations of altered pbp were seen in penicillin G-intermediate isolates. Prevalence of macrolide resistance genes mef(A) and erm(B) in isolates was clearly reflected by their MICs. All isolates were positive for lytA. The primers were useful for screening for Streptococcus pneumoniae and beta-lactam resistance, and for detection of common macrolide resistance determinants.

Publication types

  • Evaluation Study

MeSH terms

  • Anti-Bacterial Agents* / pharmacology
  • DNA Primers / genetics*
  • Drug Resistance, Bacterial / genetics
  • Humans
  • Macrolides
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction / methods*
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae / drug effects
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae / genetics*
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae / isolation & purification
  • beta-Lactam Resistance / genetics*


  • Anti-Bacterial Agents
  • DNA Primers
  • Macrolides