The objectives of this study were to establish baseline Medical Outcomes Study Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) data for Division I collegiate athletes and to determine the effects of injury severity and training time. All participating athletes (N = 562) at a major university were evaluated with the SF-36. Regression analysis was performed to identify predictive factors. When the men without injury were compared with a previously established norm group, there was a significant increase in the role emotional score. In the women without injury there were significant increases in mental component summary, physical function, role emotional, mental health, and vitality scores when compared with the norm group. Serious injury was a predictor of lower scores in all domains, whereas minimal injury was predictive of lower physical component summary, role physical, bodily pain, social function, and general health scores. Increased training time was predictive of higher mental component summary, role physical, vitality, and general health scores. Elite collegiate athletes scored differently from previously established age-matched norms, and injury was a strong predictor of lower scores.