Transgenic DNA introgressed into traditional maize landraces in Oaxaca, Mexico

Nature. 2001 Nov 29;414(6863):541-3. doi: 10.1038/35107068.


Concerns have been raised about the potential effects of transgenic introductions on the genetic diversity of crop landraces and wild relatives in areas of crop origin and diversification, as this diversity is considered essential for global food security. Direct effects on non-target species, and the possibility of unintentionally transferring traits of ecological relevance onto landraces and wild relatives have also been sources of concern. The degree of genetic connectivity between industrial crops and their progenitors in landraces and wild relatives is a principal determinant of the evolutionary history of crops and agroecosystems throughout the world. Recent introductions of transgenic DNA constructs into agricultural fields provide unique markers to measure such connectivity. For these reasons, the detection of transgenic DNA in crop landraces is of critical importance. Here we report the presence of introgressed transgenic DNA constructs in native maize landraces grown in remote mountains in Oaxaca, Mexico, part of the Mesoamerican centre of origin and diversification of this crop.

MeSH terms

  • Agrobacterium tumefaciens / genetics
  • Bacillus thuringiensis / genetics
  • Caulimovirus / genetics
  • DNA, Bacterial / analysis
  • DNA, Bacterial / genetics
  • DNA, Plant / analysis
  • DNA, Plant / genetics*
  • DNA, Recombinant / analysis
  • DNA, Recombinant / genetics*
  • DNA, Viral / analysis
  • DNA, Viral / genetics
  • Environmental Monitoring
  • Mexico
  • Plants, Genetically Modified / genetics*
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Zea mays / genetics*


  • DNA, Bacterial
  • DNA, Plant
  • DNA, Recombinant
  • DNA, Viral