Background: Standard peritoneal dialysis (PD) solutions may contribute to anorexia in PD patients due to the peritoneal absorption of glucose from the dialysate, abdominal discomfort and other factors. New PD solutions containing alternative osmotic agents, neutral pH and bicarbonate as buffer were recently developed. To test the effect of these solutions on appetite, we investigated how intraoral (IO) intake of sucrose via an IO cannula was influenced by intraperitoneal (IP) infusion of different PD solutions in an appetite model in rats.
Methods: The IO intake was measured in male Wistar rats after an IP dwell of 30 and 120 minutes with the following PD solutions: 1.36%, 2.27% and 3.86% glucose based and lactate buffered solutions (D); 1.36%, 2.27% and 3.86% glucose based and bicarbonate/lactate buffered solutions (P); 7.5% icodextrin based solution (E); 1.1% amino acid-based solution (N); and, 2.5% glucose-based lactate-buffered solution (GB), using sham injection (injection without infusion) as control. Prior to the tests, rats were provided with an IO cannula, and were trained for two weeks until the rate of IO intake had stabilized.
Results: The D and N solutions inhibited IO intake. For the D solutions, the degree of appetite suppression was higher with the higher concentration of glucose. P 3.86%, but not P 1.36% and P 2.27% solutions, inhibited the IO intake. However, a comparison of the degree of appetite inhibition between D and P showed less inhibition with P 1.36%, 2.27% and 3.86% solutions than with corresponding D solutions. The E solution did not seem to suppress appetite. Finally, no significant difference in IO intake was found between rats given GB 2.5% and D 2.27%.
Conclusions: In this appetite model in rats, the measurement of IO intake after the IP infusion of different dialysis solutions showed that (1) N and D solutions may reduce appetite, and for the D solutions the degree of appetite inhibition was related to the dialysate concentrations of glucose; (2) the P solutions had less impact on appetite than the D solutions; (3) the E solution had no impact on appetite during the short dwells of 30 and 120 minutes. The demonstrated differences between the different solutions appear to be due to different concentrations, and type, of nutrients used as osmotic agent (glucose, amino acids, icodextrin) or buffer (lactate), although differences in dialysate pH, tonicity and concentration of glucose degradation products also may be important. The present studies suggest a possible positive effect on appetite by using bicarbonate/lactate buffered solutions instead of lactate buffered solutions.