Purpose: To evaluate the penetration of ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, and moxifloxacin into the aqueous humor after oral administration.
Setting: Alcorcon Hospital, Madrid, Spain.
Methods: Forty-two patients having cataract surgery were randomly divided into 3 groups the day before surgery. The first group received 2 oral 500 mg doses of ciprofloxacin at 12-hour intervals. The second group received a single oral 500 mg dose of levofloxacin. The third group received a single oral 400 mg dose of moxifloxacin. At the time of surgery, 0.1 mL aqueous fluid was aspirated from the anterior chamber just before the operation and immediately stored at -80 degrees C. Drug concentrations were measured using a biological assay.
Results: The mean aqueous level of ciprofloxacin was 0.50 microg/mL +/- 0.25 (SD); of levofloxacin, 1.50 +/- 0.50 microg/mL; and of moxifloxacin, 2.33 +/- 0.85 microg/mL. The mean aqueous levels of levofloxacin and moxifloxacin were above the 90% minimum inhibitory concentration for most of the common microorganisms that cause endophthalmitis.
Conclusions: Therapeutic concentrations of fluoroquinolones, mainly levofloxacin and moxifloxacin, were reached with oral administration. These antibiotics may be effective for prophylaxis and adjuvant therapy of bacterial endophthalmitis.