Study objectives: To determine whether the spectrum of HIV-related pulmonary disease seen by a university medical center Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine Service has changed since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART).
Design: Retrospective chart review.
Setting: A tertiary care university hospital.
Patients: All HIV-infected patients referred to the Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine Service from January 1, 1993, through December 31, 1995 (era 1) and from July 1, 1997, through June 30, 2000 (era 2).
Interventions: Inpatient and outpatient charts were reviewed for data regarding patient demographics, CD4 cell counts, viral load levels, duration of HIV seropositivity, history of opportunistic infections, and final diagnosis.
Results: Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) was less common in the HAART era than in the pre-HAART era, whereas bacterial pneumonia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) were more common in the HAART era than in the pre-HAART era. HAART was protective against PCP (odds ratio [OR], 0.37; confidence interval [CI], 0.16 to 0.89) in a manner dependent on the CD4 cell count. Patients receiving HAART were at increased risk for the development of bacterial pneumonia (OR, 2.41; CI, 1.12 to 5.17) and NHL (OR, 15.11; CI, 3.14 to 28.32). A history of PCP indicated a risk factor for bacterial pneumonia (OR, 2.14; CI, 1.13 to 4.04). A history of cytomegalovirus infection indicated a risk factor for NHL (OR, 6.0; CI, 1.27 to 28.32).
Conclusions: There have been significant changes in the spectrum of HIV-related pulmonary complications seen by our Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine Service in the HAART era.