Anatolian Tree Rings and a New Chronology for the East Mediterranean Bronze-Iron Ages

Science. 2001 Dec 21;294(5551):2532-5. doi: 10.1126/science.1066112. Epub 2001 Dec 6.


We report an extensive program of high-precision radiocarbon dating to establish the best date for a floating 1599-year Anatolian tree ring chronology that spans the later third millennium B.C. through the earlier first millennium B.C. This chronology is directly associated with a number of key sites and ancient personages. A previously suggested dating is withdrawn and is replaced by a robust new date fix 22 (+4 or -7) years earlier. These new radiocarbon wiggle-matched dates offer a unique independent resource for establishing the precise chronology of the ancient Near East and Aegean and help resolve, among others, a long-standing debate in favor of the so-called Middle Mesopotamian chronology.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Archaeology*
  • Atmosphere
  • Bayes Theorem
  • Carbon Dioxide
  • Carbon Radioisotopes*
  • Germany
  • Ireland
  • Least-Squares Analysis
  • Pinus / growth & development
  • Quercus / growth & development
  • Seasons
  • Software
  • Time
  • Trees* / growth & development
  • Turkey
  • Wood


  • Carbon Radioisotopes
  • Carbon Dioxide