Genome-wide distribution of ORC and MCM proteins in S. cerevisiae: high-resolution mapping of replication origins

Science. 2001 Dec 14;294(5550):2357-60. doi: 10.1126/science.1066101.


DNA replication origins are fundamental to chromosome organization and duplication, but understanding of these elements is limited because only a small fraction of these sites have been identified in eukaryotic genomes. Origin Recognition Complex (ORC) and minichromosome maintenance (MCM) proteins form prereplicative complexes at origins of replication. Using these proteins as molecular landmarks for origins, we identified ORC- and MCM-bound sites throughout the yeast genome. Four hundred twenty-nine sites in the yeast genome were predicted to contain replication origins, and approximately 80% of the loci identified on chromosome X demonstrated origin function. A substantial fraction of the predicted origins are associated with repetitive DNA sequences, including subtelomeric elements (X and Y') and transposable element-associated sequences (long terminal repeats). These findings identify the global set of yeast replication origins and open avenues of investigation into the role(s) ORC and MCM proteins play in chromosomal architecture and dynamics.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Binding Sites
  • Cell Cycle Proteins / metabolism*
  • Chromosomes, Fungal / metabolism
  • DNA Replication*
  • DNA Transposable Elements
  • DNA, Fungal / biosynthesis
  • DNA, Fungal / genetics
  • DNA, Fungal / metabolism
  • DNA, Intergenic
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism*
  • Genome, Fungal*
  • Minichromosome Maintenance Complex Component 4
  • Minichromosome Maintenance Complex Component 7
  • Nuclear Proteins / metabolism
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Origin Recognition Complex
  • RNA, Fungal / genetics
  • RNA, Fungal / metabolism
  • RNA, Transfer / genetics
  • RNA, Transfer / metabolism
  • Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid
  • Replication Origin*
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae / genetics*
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae / metabolism
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins / metabolism*
  • Telomere / metabolism
  • Terminal Repeat Sequences


  • Cell Cycle Proteins
  • DNA Transposable Elements
  • DNA, Fungal
  • DNA, Intergenic
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Nuclear Proteins
  • Origin Recognition Complex
  • RNA, Fungal
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins
  • RNA, Transfer
  • MCM4 protein, S cerevisiae
  • MCM7 protein, S cerevisiae
  • Minichromosome Maintenance Complex Component 4
  • Minichromosome Maintenance Complex Component 7