Ipratropium, a current treatment for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and tiotropium, a longer acting anticholinergic bronchodilator currently being developed for COPD are structurally related to atropine. In this study, the intravenous (i.v.), oral (p.o.) and intratracheal (i.tr.) single dose pharmacokinetics (PK) of tiotropium and ipratropium were determined in rat and dog. In rats, concentration-time profiles of tiotropium and ipratropium after single i.v. bolus administration of 7-8 mg kg(-1) are similar. Both drugs are highly cleared (Cl between 87 and 150 ml min(-1) kg(-1)) and extensively distributed into tissues (volume of distribution V(ss) between 3 and 15 l kg(-1)). In dogs, this holds also true for both drugs (Cl between 34 and 42 ml min(-1) kg(-1), V(ss) between 2 and 10 l kg(-1)), although different dose regimen were applied (i.v. bolus of 0.08 mg kg(-1) vs. infusion of 0.1 mg kg(-1) h(-1) for 3 h). Tiotropium plasma concentrations increased linearly in rats over a wide dose range following single i.v. administration. Both ipratropium and tiotropium showed a comparable terminal elimination half-life in rat urine (21-24 h) after single i.v. administration, which was much longer than the corresponding half-life in plasma (6-8 h). Whole body autoradiography in rats revealed a broad and rapid tissue distribution of [(14)C]tiotropium radioactivity after single i.v. administration. A comparable distribution pattern has also been reported earlier for ipratropium.
Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.