Preferences for care near the end of life: scale development and validation

Res Nurs Health. 2001 Aug;24(4):298-306. doi: 10.1002/nur.1031.


The purpose of this study was to develop and validate an instrument, the Preferences for Care near the End of Life (PCEOL) scale. Following a literature review and using the domain-referenced approach and a test grid, a large pool of items was generated to reflect five dimensions of preferences for care near the end of life. These were reviewed for relevance and clarity by an expert panel. A convenience sample of 198 adults was secured to provide data for the study of the psychometric properties of the scale. Data screening and item analysis resulted in a final sample of 43 items. A principal factor analysis (PFA) resulted in an interpretable, meaningful five-factor solution. Reliability estimates (internal consistency) for the factors on the multidimensional instrument ranged from.68 to.91. Retest stability estimates for the PCEOL showed correlations of.80 to.94 for factor scores over a 2-week interval.

Publication types

  • Validation Study

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Decision Making*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Patient Satisfaction*
  • Surveys and Questionnaires / standards*
  • Terminally Ill / psychology*