Chemistry and pharmacology of the Citrus bioflavonoid hesperidin

Phytother Res. 2001 Dec;15(8):655-69. doi: 10.1002/ptr.1074.


Hesperidin, a bioflavonoid, is an abundant and inexpensive by-product of Citrus cultivation. A deficiency of this substance in the diet has been linked with abnormal capillary leakiness as well as pain in the extremities causing aches, weakness and night leg cramps. No signs of toxicity have been observed with the normal intake of hesperidin or related compounds. Both hesperidin and its aglycone hesperetin have been reported to possess a wide range of pharmacological properties. This paper reviews various aspects of hesperidin and its related compounds, including their occurrence, physical and chemical properties, analysis, pharmacokinetics, safety and toxicity and the marketed products available. A special emphasis has been laid on the pharmacological properties and medicinal uses of these compounds.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Citrus*
  • Hesperidin / chemistry
  • Hesperidin / pharmacokinetics*
  • Hesperidin / pharmacology*
  • Humans
  • Phytotherapy*


  • Hesperidin