Identification and functional characterization of the promoter region of the human MSH6 gene

Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2002 Jan;33(1):36-46. doi: 10.1002/gcc.1211.


Postreplicative mismatch repair (MMR) corrects polymerase errors arising during DNA replication. Consistent with this role, the Saccharomyces cerevisiae MMR genes MSH2, MSH6, and PMS1 were reported to be transcriptionally upregulated during late G(1) phase of the cell cycle. Surprisingly, despite the high degree of conservation of the MMR system in evolution, the human MMR genes studied to date, MSH2, MLH1, and PMS2, appear to be transcribed from classical housekeeping promoters, and the amounts of the polypeptides encoded by them fluctuate little during the cell cycle. Only the amounts of the 160-kDa MSH6 protein were reported to vary, both during development and following stimulation of cell growth. Moreover, transcription of this gene was found to be downregulated by CpG methylation of the promoter region in a subset of clones treated with alkylating agents. In an attempt to understand the molecular basis underlying these phenomena, we isolated the 5' region of the MSH6 gene and subjected it to functional analysis. We now show that the MSH6 gene is also transcribed from a classical housekeeping gene promoter. Despite housing putative binding sites for the transcription factors AP1, NF-kappaB, and MTF-1, the MSH6 promoter failed to respond to ionizing radiation or heavy metals. Interestingly, MSH6 transcription was upregulated during late G(1) phase, even though the levels of the protein remained essentially constant during the cell cycle.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • 5' Flanking Region / genetics
  • Base Pair Mismatch
  • Base Sequence
  • Cell Cycle / genetics
  • Cell Line
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / chemistry
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / genetics*
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / isolation & purification*
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / physiology
  • Gene Expression Regulation / physiology
  • HeLa Cells
  • Humans
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Promoter Regions, Genetic / physiology*
  • Sequence Analysis, DNA / methods
  • Transcription Initiation Site
  • Tumor Cells, Cultured


  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • G-T mismatch-binding protein

Associated data

  • GENBANK/AF334668