A cDNA selection technique has been used to isolate full-length human cDNAs of the phosphodiesterase 1 (PDE1) calcium calmodulin (CaM)-regulated phosphodiesterase gene family. We isolated cDNAs representing multiple splice variants of PDE1A, 1B and 1C from a variety of tissues. Included among these were two novel splice variants for PDE1A and 1B. The first, PDE1A5, encodes a 519-residue protein, which is different from PDE1A1 by the insertion of 14 residues, a divergent carboxy terminus and also differs from PDE1A3 through a divergent amino terminus. Our second novel splice variant represents the first occurrence of a splice variant of the PDE1B gene. PDE1B2 encodes a 516-residue protein and diverges from PDE1B1 by the replacement of the first 38 residues by an alternative 18, which is predicted to be functionally significant. Using the splice variant sequence differences to perform comparative Northern analysis, we have demonstrated that each variant has a differential tissue distribution.