Cancer as an epigenetic disease: DNA methylation and chromatin alterations in human tumours

J Pathol. 2002 Jan;196(1):1-7. doi: 10.1002/path.1024.


Cancer is an epigenetic disease at the same level that it can be considered a genetic disease. In fact, epigenetic changes, particularly DNA methylation, are susceptible to change and are excellent candidates to explain how certain environmental factors may increase the risk of cancer. The delicate organization of methylation and chromatin states that regulates the normal cellular homeostasis of gene expression patterns becomes unrecognizable in the cancer cell. The genome of the transformed cell undergoes simultaneously a global genomic hypomethylation and a dense hypermethylation of the CpG islands associated with gene regulatory regions. These dramatic changes may lead to chromosomal instability, activation of endogenous parasitic sequences, loss of imprinting, illegitimate expression, aneuploidy, and mutations, and may contribute to the transcriptional silencing of tumour suppressor genes. The hypermethylation-associated inactivation affects virtually all of the pathways in the cellular network, such as DNA repair (hMLH1, BRCA1, MGMT, em leader), the cell cycle (p16(INK4a), p14(ARF), p15(INK4b), ...), and apoptosis (DAPK, APAF-1, ...). The aberrant CpG island methylation can also be used as a biomarker of malignant cells and as a predictor of their behaviour, and may constitute a good target for future therapies.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Chromatin / genetics*
  • DNA Methylation*
  • DNA, Neoplasm / genetics
  • Humans
  • Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • Neoplasms / genetics*


  • Chromatin
  • DNA, Neoplasm