Aim: To investigate the anti-inflammatory effect and mechanism of proanthocyanidins (PA) from grape seeds.
Methods: Croton oil-induced ear swelling in mice and carrageenan-induced hind paw edema in rats were prepared. The nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity was measured by NADPH-diaphoras stain assay, nitric oxide (NO) content by Griess diazotization assay, N-acetyl-beta- D-glucosaminidase (beta-NAG) activity by spectrophotography, malondialdehyde (MDA) content by thiobarbituric acid (TBA) fluorescence technique, and IL-1beta, TNFalpha, and PGE2 content by radioimmunoassay (RIA).
Results: PA 10-40 mg/kg ip inhibited carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats and croton oil-induced ear swelling in mice in a dose-dependent manner. PA 10 mg/kg reduced MDA content in inflamed paws, inhibited beta-NAG and NOS activity, and lowered the content of NO, IL-1beta, TNFalpha, and PGE2 in exudate from edema paws of rats induced by carrageenan. The inhibitory effect of PA on all above indices was more evident than that of dexamethasone 2 mg/kg.
Conclusion: PA has anti-inflammatory effect on experimental inflammation in rats and mice. Its mechanisms of anti-inflammatory action are relevant to oxygen free radical scavenging, anti-lipid peroxidation, and inhibition of the formation of inflammatory cytokines.