Anti-inflammatory effect and mechanism of proanthocyanidins from grape seeds

Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2001 Dec;22(12):1117-20.


Aim: To investigate the anti-inflammatory effect and mechanism of proanthocyanidins (PA) from grape seeds.

Methods: Croton oil-induced ear swelling in mice and carrageenan-induced hind paw edema in rats were prepared. The nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity was measured by NADPH-diaphoras stain assay, nitric oxide (NO) content by Griess diazotization assay, N-acetyl-beta- D-glucosaminidase (beta-NAG) activity by spectrophotography, malondialdehyde (MDA) content by thiobarbituric acid (TBA) fluorescence technique, and IL-1beta, TNFalpha, and PGE2 content by radioimmunoassay (RIA).

Results: PA 10-40 mg/kg ip inhibited carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats and croton oil-induced ear swelling in mice in a dose-dependent manner. PA 10 mg/kg reduced MDA content in inflamed paws, inhibited beta-NAG and NOS activity, and lowered the content of NO, IL-1beta, TNFalpha, and PGE2 in exudate from edema paws of rats induced by carrageenan. The inhibitory effect of PA on all above indices was more evident than that of dexamethasone 2 mg/kg.

Conclusion: PA has anti-inflammatory effect on experimental inflammation in rats and mice. Its mechanisms of anti-inflammatory action are relevant to oxygen free radical scavenging, anti-lipid peroxidation, and inhibition of the formation of inflammatory cytokines.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Anthocyanins / isolation & purification
  • Anthocyanins / pharmacology*
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents / pharmacology*
  • Arthritis, Experimental / chemically induced
  • Croton Oil
  • Edema / chemically induced
  • Female
  • Male
  • Mice
  • Proanthocyanidins*
  • Rats
  • Seeds / chemistry
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / metabolism
  • Vitis / chemistry*


  • Anthocyanins
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents
  • Proanthocyanidins
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
  • proanthocyanidin
  • Croton Oil