Synovial production of chemokines may play an important role in the recruitment of phagocytic leukocytes during inflammation. MCP-1, as well as RANTES mediate many different inflammatory diseases and are important in the recruitment of diverse leukocytes. We set out to study the different production of MCP-1 and RANTES in three different inflammatory conditions of the knee: arthrosynovitis, mechanical trauma, and hyperuricemia. In this study we evaluated if in each pathological condition mentioned above, there was a prevalence in production of one chemokine over the other. ELISA method was used to determine base production of the chemokines in the synovial fluid, serum and in supernatants from activated inflammatory cells. RANTES and MCP-1 messenger RNA (mRNA) was measured by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Protein expression was detected by Western blot analysis. The synovial fluid cells from the knee of patients affected with arthrosynovitis, trauma, and hyperuricemia, expressed RANTES and MCP-1 and RANTES was produced in higher quantities than MCP-1 in all three pathological conditions. In patients treated with non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAD) and dexamethasone, the levels of the two chemokines was reduced in serum and in synovial fluid. In addition, the synovial fluid cells from these patients released less RANTES and MCP-1 when compared to untreated patients. We conclude that in arthrosynovitis, trauma and hyperuricemia, RANTES and MCP-1 are both expressed and RANTES is produced in higher quantities. The fact that these chemokines are found in the three inflammatory diseases suggests that RANTES and MCP-1 are not specific to these inflammatory diseases, however they play a key role in inflammation by recruiting mononuclear leukocytes in the inflamed knee joint.