The dynamics of the T-cell antitumor response: chemokine-secreting dendritic cells can prime tumor-reactive T cells extranodally

Cancer Res. 2001 Dec 15;61(24):8794-802.


Direct administration of dendritic cells (DCs) genetically modified to express secondary lymphoid tissue chemokine (SLC) into growing B16 melanoma could result in a substantial, sustained influx of T cells within the mass with only a transient increase in T-cell numbers in the draining lymph node (DLN). DCs were retained at the tumor site with only a very small percentage trafficking to the DLN. The T cells infiltrating the tumor mass expressed the activation marker CD25 within 24 h and developed IFN-gamma-secreting function within 7 days as tumor growth was inhibited. Similar results were obtained in lymphotoxin alpha-/- mice, which lacked peripheral lymph nodes. Our data demonstrate that effective T-cell priming can occur extranodally and result in measurable antitumor effects in vivo.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adenoviridae / genetics
  • Animals
  • Chemokine CCL21
  • Chemokines, CC / genetics
  • Chemokines, CC / immunology*
  • Dendritic Cells / immunology
  • Dendritic Cells / metabolism
  • Dendritic Cells / physiology*
  • Genetic Vectors / genetics
  • Immunotherapy, Adoptive / methods*
  • Interferon-gamma / immunology
  • Interferon-gamma / metabolism
  • Lymph Nodes / immunology
  • Lymphocyte Activation / immunology
  • Lymphocytes, Tumor-Infiltrating / immunology
  • Lymphocytes, Tumor-Infiltrating / metabolism
  • Lymphotoxin-alpha / genetics
  • Lymphotoxin-alpha / immunology
  • Melanoma, Experimental / immunology
  • Melanoma, Experimental / therapy
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred C57BL
  • T-Lymphocytes / immunology*
  • T-Lymphocytes / metabolism


  • Ccl21c protein, mouse
  • Chemokine CCL21
  • Chemokines, CC
  • Lymphotoxin-alpha
  • Interferon-gamma