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. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):207-10.
doi: 10.1093/nar/30.1.207.

Gene Expression Omnibus: NCBI Gene Expression and Hybridization Array Data Repository

Free PMC article

Gene Expression Omnibus: NCBI Gene Expression and Hybridization Array Data Repository

Ron Edgar et al. Nucleic Acids Res. .
Free PMC article


The Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) project was initiated in response to the growing demand for a public repository for high-throughput gene expression data. GEO provides a flexible and open design that facilitates submission, storage and retrieval of heterogeneous data sets from high-throughput gene expression and genomic hybridization experiments. GEO is not intended to replace in house gene expression databases that benefit from coherent data sets, and which are constructed to facilitate a particular analytic method, but rather complement these by acting as a tertiary, central data distribution hub. The three central data entities of GEO are platforms, samples and series, and were designed with gene expression and genomic hybridization experiments in mind. A platform is, essentially, a list of probes that define what set of molecules may be detected. A sample describes the set of molecules that are being probed and references a single platform used to generate its molecular abundance data. A series organizes samples into the meaningful data sets which make up an experiment. The GEO repository is publicly accessible through the World Wide Web at


Figure 1
Figure 1
GEO schema and example. (A) The entity-relationship diagram for the GEO database. (B) An actual example of three samples referencing one platform and contained in a single series.

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