Classical lissencephaly (LIS) and subcortical band heterotopia (SBH) are related cortical malformations secondary to abnormal migration of neurons during early brain development. Approximately 60% of patients with classical LIS, and one patient with atypical SBH have been found to have deletions or mutations of the LIS1 gene, located on 17p13.3. This gene encodes the LIS1 or PAFAH1B1 protein with a coiled-coil domain at the N-terminus and seven WD40 repeats at the C-terminus. It is highly conserved between species and has been shown to interact with multiple proteins involved with cytoskeletal dynamics, playing a role in both cellular division and motility, as well as the regulation of brain levels of platelet activating factor. Here we report 65 large deletions of the LIS1 gene detected by FISH and 41 intragenic mutations, including four not previously reported, the majority of which have been found as a consequence of the investigation of 220 children with LIS or SBH by our group. All intragenic mutations are de novo, and there have been no familial recurrences. Eight-eight percent (36/41) of the mutations result in a truncated or internally deleted protein-with missense mutations found in only 12% (5/41) thus far. Mutations occurred throughout the gene except for exon 7, with clustering of three of the five missense mutations in exon 6. Only five intragenic mutations were recurrent. In general, the most severe LIS phenotype was seen in patients with large deletions of 17p13.3, with milder phenotypes seen with intragenic mutations. Of these, the mildest phenotypes were seen in patients with missense mutations.
Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.