Mutations in the X-linked methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2) gene have been found to be a cause of Rett syndrome (RTT). Mutation screening was based on various techniques including denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis, heteroduplex analysis, DNA sequencing and recently Southern Blot analysis. Mutation detection was achieved in 80% of typical RTT with a high prevalence of recurrent mutations. In order to provide further insights into the spectrum of MECP2 rearrangements in patients without any point mutation or small deletion/insertion in the coding region MECP2 gene, we screened 25 classical RTT females using fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis. No deletion were found in our group, suggesting that MECP2 gross rearrangements are a rare cause of Rett syndrome.