Background: Magnesium intakes in many industrialized countries are below recommended daily allowances. Magnesium-rich mineral water may contribute to coverage of magnesium requirements by providing significant amounts of natural, energy-free, bioavailable magnesium.
Objective: The objectives were to determine magnesium bioavailability from magnesium-rich (110 mg/L) mineral water in healthy subjects when consumed alone and to evaluate the effect of simultaneous meal consumption.
Design: Magnesium bioavailability was measured in 10 healthy women with the use of a crossover design. Stable magnesium isotopes ((25)Mg and (26)Mg) were administered orally with mineral water, which was consumed with or without a meal. Apparent magnesium absorption was determined by fecal monitoring, and magnesium retention was determined from urinary excretion of magnesium isotopes.
Results: The mean (+/-SD) magnesium absorption from mineral water consumed alone was 45.7 +/- 4.6% (range: 40.2-55.5%) and was significantly greater (P = 0.0001) when it was consumed with a meal (52.3 +/- 3.9%; 46.2-60.2%), a relative difference of 14.4%. Magnesium retention also was significantly greater (P = 0.0004) when mineral water was consumed with a meal (41.5 +/- 4.2%; 35.2-50.6%) than when consumed alone (37.4 +/- 4.0%; 33.1-47.0%), a relative difference of 11.0%.
Conclusions: In healthy young women, approximately 50% of the magnesium from magnesium-rich mineral water was absorbed when consumed alone. Magnesium bioavailability from mineral water is enhanced when the water is consumed with a meal, perhaps because of a slower gastrointestinal transit time, the presence of digestion products from the meal, or both. Regular consumption of magnesium-rich mineral water could make a valuable contribution to magnesium requirements.