We describe the morphology and comparative genomic hybridization findings in a tumor for which we propose the term "spiradenocylindroma" of the kidney. The tumor arose in the wall of a renal cyst in an otherwise healthy male patient who had a favorable clinical course after nephrectomy. Tumor cells formed either large nodules exhibiting a solid or trabecular architecture with conspicuous perivascular spaces or cylindromatous small tumor cell islands arranged in a jigsaw pattern. Focally, there were interspersed tubular structures and tumor cell rosettes with central deposits of periodic acid-Schiff-positive material. A minor tumor component showed epidermoid differentiation. The tumor cells were strongly positive for cytokeratins 5/6, high molecular weight cytokeratins 34betaE12 and AE1/3, and E-cadherin, but only weakly positive for cytokeratins 7, 8, 18, 19, and epithelial membrane antigen. Focal reactivity for actin, vimentin, and S-100 protein or lysozyme and alpha 1 -antichymotrypsin within tubular and cylindromatous areas suggested myoepithelial and apocrine differentiation, respectively. By comparative genomic hybridization, the only abnormality was loss of the long arm of chromosome 16 and gain of genetic material on the short arm of chromosome 16, suggesting isochromosome i(16p). This finding is unique among renal neoplasms and implies loss of heterozygosity at 16q12-13 of the CYLD1 gene that is critically involved in the oncogenesis of familial cylindromatosis and some sporadic spiradenocylindromas. We conclude that somatic mutation of the CYLD1 gene outside the skin can have a role in the oncogenesis of tumors with cylindromatous features.